In 2023 USACE convened a workshop that brought together researchers and scientists to present and discuss the most recent scientific information available regarding benefits of woody vegetation on riverside slopes and levees, including geotechnical, environmental, economic, and social factors.
- How Levees Change the Landscape
- Vegetation Benefits – Geotechnical Reinforcement and Erosion Resistance
- Vegetation Benefits – Environmental and Social Benefits
- Vegetation Benefits – Evaluating Health and Economic Benefits
- Identifying and Promoting Helpful Vegetation
The Levee Effect – Raising Awareness for How Levees Change the Landscape
- Levee Impacts on Riverine Ecosystems: Mediating Effects of Woody Vegetation – Doug Shields, Jr., Shields Engineering, LLC
- Nunnally NR, Shields FD, Hynson J. (1987). Environmental considerations for levees and floodwalls. Environmental Management, 11, pp.183-191.
- Opperman JJ, Galloway GE. (2022). Nature-based solutions for managing rising flood risk and delivering multiple benefits. One Earth, 5(5), pp.461-465.
- Shields FD. (2016). Synthesis of levee vegetation research results (2007-2014). California Levee Vegetation Research Program. California Department of Water Resources. Sacramento.
- Shields FD. (2019). Addendum 2019-Synthesis of Levee Vegetation Research Results (2007-2014). California Department of Water Resources. Sacramento. California Department of Water Resources (Contract No. 4600008761).
Vegetation Benefits – Geotechnical Reinforcement and Erosion Resistance
- The Impact of Woody Vegetation on Fluvial Erosion – Tess Wynn Thompson, Virginia Tech
- Effects of Riparian Vegetation on Bank Erosion – Eddy J. Langendoen, USDA ARS
- Smith DJ, Wynn-Thompson TM, Stremler MA, Williams MA, Seiler JR, Hession WC. (2023). Root reinforcement and extracellular products reduce streambank fluvial erosion. Science of The Total Environment, 896, p.165125.
- Langendoen EJ, Lowrance RR, Simon A. (2009). Assessing the impact of riparian processes on streambank stability. Ecohydrology: Ecosystems, Land and Water Process Interactions, Ecohydrogeomorphology, 2(3), pp.360-369.
Vegetation Benefits – Environmental and Social Benefits
- Environmental and Social Benefits of Woody Vegetation – Gary Bentrup, USDA
- The i-Tree Cool River Model to Guide Restoration of Thermal Pollution with Riparian Forests & Nature-Based Solutions – Theodore (Ted) Endreny, SUNY
- I-Tree: Tools you can use? Understanding the Benefits of Trees for People, Places, and Planning – Scott Maco, i-Tree
- Habitat Associations of Riparian Birds in Successional Forests along the Missouri River – Mark Dixon, University of South Dakota
- Abdi R, Endreny T. (2019). A river temperature model to assist managers in identifying thermal pollution causes and solutions. Water, 11(5), p.1060.
- Abdi R, Endreny T, Nowak D. (2020). A model to integrate urban river thermal cooling in river restoration. Journal of Environmental Management, 258, p.110023.
- Dybala KE, Steger K, Walsh RG, Smart DR, Gardali T, Seavy NE. (2019). Optimizing carbon storage and biodiversity co‐benefits in reforested riparian zones. Journal of Applied Ecology, 56(2), pp.343-353.
- Johnson WC, Dixon MD, Scott ML, Rabbe L, Larson G, Volke M, Werner B. (2012). Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain. BioScience, 62(2), pp.123-135.
Evaluating Health and Economic Benefits of Vegetation on Levees
- Valuation of Ecosystem Services: An Economic Perspective – Susana Ferreira, University of Georgia
- The Role of Ecosystem Services Evaluation in USACE Decision-Making – Richard J. Nugent, III, USACE IWR
- Ahmadiani M, Ferreira S. (2019). Environmental amenities and quality of life across the United States. Ecological Economics, 164, p.106341.
- MacKerron G, Mourato S. (2013). Happiness is greater in natural environments. Global Environmental Change, 23(5), pp.992-1000.
- Costanza R, d’Arge R, De Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, O’Neill RO, Paruelo J, Raskin RG, Sutton P, van den Belt M. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387, 253–260.
Identifying and Promoting Helpful Vegetation
- Considerations and Resources for Vegetation Selection on Levees – Lorena Guerrero, USACE
- Identifying Suitable Woody Vegetation – Gary Bentrup, USDA
- Bentrup G, Dosskey MG. (2022). Tree Advisor: A Novel Woody Plant Selection Tool to Support Multifunctional Objectives. Land, 11(3), p.397.
- Dosskey MG, Vidon P, Gurwick NP, Allan CJ, Duval TP, Lowrance R. (2010). The role of riparian vegetation in protecting and improving chemical water quality in streams. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 46(2), pp.261-277.